Bearings are important components in mechanical equipment. Its main function is to support the mechanical rotating body to reduce the friction coefficient of the mechanical load during the transmission process of the equipment.
Bearings are divided into radial bearings and thrust bearings according to the bearing direction or the nominal contact angle.
According to the type of rolling element, it is divided into: ball bearing, roller bearing.
According to whether it is self-aligning, it is divided into: self-aligning bearings, non-aligning bearings (rigid bearings).
According to the number of rows of rolling elements, it is divided into: single-row bearings, double-row bearings, and multi-row bearings.
According to whether the parts can be separated, they are divided into: separable bearings and non-separable bearings.
In addition, there are classifications by structure shape and size.
This article mainly shares the characteristics, differences and corresponding uses of 14 common bearings.
1. Angular contact ball bearings
There is a contact angle between the ring and the ball. The standard contact angles are 15°, 30° and 40°. The larger the contact angle, the greater the axial load capacity. The smaller the contact angle, the more conducive to high-speed rotation. Bear radial load and unidirectional axial load. The two single-row angular contact ball bearings that are combined in structure on the back share the inner ring and the outer ring, and can bear radial load and bidirectional axial load.
Angular contact ball bearings
The main purpose:
Single row: machine tool spindle, high frequency motor, gas turbine, centrifugal separator, front wheel of small car, differential pinion shaft.
Double row: oil pump, roots blower, air compressor, various transmissions, fuel injection pump, printing machinery.
2. Self-aligning ball bearings
Double-row steel balls, the outer ring raceway is an inner spherical type, so it can automatically adjust the shaft misalignment caused by the deflection or misalignment of the shaft or the casing. The tapered hole bearing can be easily installed on the shaft by using fasteners. bear radial loads.
Self-aligning ball bearings
Main application: woodworking machinery, textile machinery transmission shaft, vertical self-aligning bearing with seat.
This type of bearing is equipped with spherical rollers between the outer ring of the spherical raceway and the inner ring of the double raceway. According to the different internal structures, it is divided into four types: R, RH, RHA and SR. The center of the bearing is consistent and has self-aligning performance, so it can automatically adjust the misalignment of the shaft caused by the deflection or misalignment of the shaft or the casing, and can withstand radial loads and bidirectional axial loads.
Spherical roller bearing
Main uses: papermaking machinery, reduction gears, railway vehicle axles, rolling mill gearbox seats, rolling mill rollers, crushers, vibrating screens, printing machinery, woodworking machinery, various industrial reducers, vertical self-aligning bearings with seats .
4. Thrust spherical roller bearings
In this type of bearing, the spherical rollers are arranged obliquely. Since the raceway surface of the raceway is spherical and has self-aligning performance, the shaft can be allowed to have a certain inclination, and the axial load capacity is very large. Radial load, oil lubrication is generally used when used.
Main uses: hydroelectric generators, vertical motors, propeller shafts for ships, reducers for rolling screws in rolling mills, tower cranes, coal mills, extruders, and forming machines.
Five, tapered roller bearings
This type of bearing is equipped with truncated truncated rollers, which are guided by the large rib of the inner ring. The design makes the vertices of the inner ring raceway surface, the outer ring raceway surface and the conical surfaces of the roller rolling surface intersect at the center line of the bearing. point above. Single-row bearings can bear radial load and one-way axial load, and double-row bearings can bear radial load and two-way axial load, and are suitable for bearing heavy load and impact load.
Main use: Automobile: front wheel, rear wheel, transmission, differential pinion shaft. Machine tool spindles, construction machinery, large agricultural machinery, gear reduction devices for railway vehicles, rolling mill roll necks and reduction devices.
6. Deep groove ball bearings
Structurally, each ring of a deep groove ball bearing has a continuous groove-type raceway with a cross-section of approximately one third of the equatorial circumference of the ball. Deep groove ball bearings are mainly used to bear radial loads, and can also bear certain axial loads.
When the radial clearance of the bearing increases, it has the properties of an angular contact ball bearing and can bear axial loads alternating in two directions. Compared with other types of bearings of the same size, this type of bearing has a small friction coefficient, high limit speed and high precision, and is the preferred bearing type for users when selecting models.
Deep groove ball bearings
Main uses: automobiles, tractors, machine tools, motors, water pumps, agricultural machinery, textile machinery, etc.
7. Thrust ball bearings
It is composed of a washer-shaped raceway ring with a raceway, a ball and a cage assembly. The raceway ring matched with the shaft is called the shaft ring, and the raceway ring matched with the housing is called the seat ring. The two-way bearing is matched with the secret shaft in the middle ring, the one-way bearing can bear one-way axial load, and the two-way bearing can bear two-way axial load (both can not bear radial load).
Thrust ball bearing
Main application: automobile steering pin, machine tool spindle.
Eight, thrust roller bearings
Thrust roller bearings are used for shafts that mainly bear axial loads, and the meridional load is combined, but the meridional load shall not exceed 55% of the axial load. Compared with other thrust roller bearings, this kind of bearing has lower friction factor, higher speed and self-aligning ability. The rollers of the 29000 type bearing are asymmetric spherical rollers, which can reduce the relative sliding of the stick and the raceway during operation, and the rollers are long and large in diameter, and the number of rollers is large and the load capacity is large. Oil lubrication is usually used. Low speed conditions can be greased.
Thrust Roller Bearings
Main uses: hydroelectric generators, crane hooks.
Nine, cylindrical roller bearings
The rollers of cylindrical roller bearings are usually guided by the two ribs of one bearing ring. The cage rollers and the guide ring form a combination, which can be separated from the other bearing ring, which is a separable bearing.
This kind of bearing is easy to install and disassemble, especially when the inner and outer rings are required to be interference fit with the shaft and the housing. Such bearings are generally only used to bear radial loads, and only single-row bearings with ribs on both the inner and outer rings can bear a small steady axial load or a large intermittent axial load.
Main uses: large motors, machine tool spindles, axle boxes, diesel engine crankshafts, automobiles, variable boxes that are kept in mind, etc.
10. Four point contact ball bearings
It can bear radial load and bidirectional axial load. A single bearing can replace the angular contact ball bearing with front combination or rear combination. It is suitable for bearing pure axial load or synthetic load with large axial load components. This type of bearing can withstand any direction. One of the contact angles can be formed when the axial load of the ferrule is constant, so the ferrule and the ball are always in point contact with two sides and three knives on any contact line.
Main uses: aircraft jet engines, gas turbines.
11. Thrust cylindrical roller bearings
It consists of washer-shaped raceway rings (shaft washers, seat washers), cylindrical rollers and cage assemblies. The cylindrical roller is processed with convex surface, so the pressure distribution between the roller and the raceway surface is uniform, and it can bear one-way axial load, with large axial load capacity and strong axial rigidity.
Thrust Cylindrical Roller Bearings
Main uses: oil drilling rigs, iron and steel making machinery.
12. Thrust needle roller bearings
Separable bearings are composed of raceway rings, needle rollers and cage assemblies, and can be combined arbitrarily with stamped thin raceway rings or cut and machined thick raceway rings. Non-separable bearings are integral bearings composed of precision stamped raceway rings, needle rollers and cage assemblies, which can withstand unidirectional axial loads. This type of bearing occupies a small space and is conducive to the compact design of machinery. Only the needle roller and cage assembly is used, and the mounting surface of the shaft and housing is used as the raceway surface.
Thrust needle roller bearings
Main application: speed change device for automobiles, cultivators, machine tools, etc.
13. Thrust tapered roller bearings
This type of bearing is equipped with a truncated truncated roller (the big end is a spherical surface), and the roller is accurately guided by the rib of the raceway ring (shaft washer, seat washer). The vertices of each conical surface intersect at a point on the center line of the bearing, the one-way bearing can bear one-way axial load, and the two-way bearing can bear two-way axial load.
Thrust tapered roller bearings
The main purpose:
One-way: crane hook, oil rig swivel.
Bidirectional: rolling mill roll neck.
14. Outer spherical ball bearing with seat
The spherical insert ball bearing with seat consists of a spherical insert ball bearing with seals on both sides and a cast (or steel plate stamped) bearing seat. The internal structure of the outer spherical ball bearing is the same as that of the deep groove ball bearing, but the inner ring of this kind of bearing is wider than the outer ring, and the outer ring has a truncated spherical outer surface, which can be automatically aligned with the concave spherical surface of the bearing seat.
Main uses: mining, metallurgy, agriculture, chemical industry, textile, printing and dyeing. Conveying machinery, etc.
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